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Pharmacogenetic Testing (PGx)Accu Reference Medical Lab offers an extensive pharmacogenetic test menu to help the clinician in identifying appropriate treatment and to monitor efficacy and toxicity by evaluating the genetic differences in metabolic pathways for each individual.
Gene Panels Available
Genes tested: CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, SLCO1B1, APOE, VKORC1, LPA, ITGB3
Genes tested: CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP1A2, ANKK1/DRD2, COMT, HTR2A, HTR2C, UGT2B15
Genes tested: CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, OPRM1
Genes tested: CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, SLCO1B1, APOE, VKORC1, ANKK1/DRD2, OPRM1, COMT, HTR2B, LPA, ITGB3, UGT2B15
Other gene(s) tested:
What are pharmacogenetic tests and why use them for patient testing?
Pharmacogenetics is a field of research that seeks to understand genetic variability that leads to individual responses to medications. The long-term goal of pharmacogenetics is to help healthcare professionals (HCPs) select the drugs and dosages best suited for each person. By analyzing genes that produce specific drug targets, for example, a HCP may be able to adjust medication dosage for precision, optimizing efficacy and safety. The decision about which drug to prescribe may also be influenced by existing health contraindications or maintenance medications.
Pharmacogenetic testing is important in therapeutic decision-making. The Food and Drug Administration has begun including pharmacogenetic information on the labels of more than 150 medications, which can helps HCPS tailor their prescriptions to individual patients. Dosages and timing of therapies are usually based upon the anticipated metabolism and clearance rates of the average person, which is where pharmacogenetic testing comes in. Pharmacogenetic testing provides HCPs with the opportunity to personalize medication to best suit the individual. Being able to test patients for their response to a particular therapy helps provide efficacy and safety insight prior to starting the patient on a new therapeutic regime.
Pharmacogenetic testing is only indicated currently for patients that may be taking or will begin taking a drug with an accepted pharmacogenetic test. However, pharmacogenetic testing may also be ordered when a medication with a narrow therapeutic range is selected, or one with a high rate of adverse events. Prior to commencing a patient on a particular therapy or after a patient has already begun a therapy (eg, during the initial phase of treatment or later in treatment) the accepted pharmacogenetic test can be carried out. Test results can then be combined with the existing patient history, clinical information and medication profile to personalize the therapeutic approach.
Pharmacogenetic testing can also be a useful addition in the treatment decision-making process. This is because of how pharmacogenetic tests can provide both the HCP and patient with additional information for selecting a therapy and optimizing label-approved dosages. HCPs may use pharmacogenetic testing insight to adjust medication dosage or to switch therapeutic class, as examples. Single genes or multiple genes may be explored for expression patterns. An example of a therapy that requires multiple genes to be examined is warfarin because genetic variation in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 may affect its overall efficacy in the case of an excessive clotting disorder. Pharmacogenetic testing should only be used as a complementary approach for clinical and shared decision making, particularly with the aim to individualize dosing regimens, and to enhance drug efficacy and safety profiles within individuals.
Accureference offers pharmacogenetic tests that can provide data to aid clinicians in the therapeutic decision making process.
1. Pharmacogenetic tests. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Website: https://labtestsonline.org/ understanding/analytes/ pharmacogenetic-tests/. Updated: April 3, 2014. Accessed: April 3, 2016.
2. Pharmacogenetics fact sheet. National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Website: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/ education/Pages/ factsheet-pharmacogenomics.aspx. Updated: October 1, 2015. Accessed: April 3, 2016.
3. Gervasini G et al. Pharmacogenetic testing and therapeutic drug monitoring are complementary tools for optimal individualization of drug therapy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:755-774.